Jonas Lau Markussen

Profile 3

In the same series:


The Runestone Styles


The Styles


The Stones



Pr 3


c. 1045 – 1075




Characterisation of the style

As defined by Anne-Sofie Gräslund



Overall impression

Firmly rounded with moderately sweeping lines, neither too thick and unresilliant nor too sweeping.



Characterised by a convex line from ear to nose tip.



Almond-shaped, not too large in proportion to the head.



Low set, rounded and slightly bent backwards.



Normally open. The lower lip, usually smaller than in Pr 2, slightly bent downwards. The lip lappet forms an S-line, starting at the somewhat turned-up nose tip. There is a balance between the curve of the ear and that of the nose.



Occur sometimes, rounded with two toes on relatively short legs.



Rolled up, often with a thickened end and a thumb-like protuberance downwards.


Additional snakes




One (sometimes two) rune animal(s) along the edge, without or occasionally with over-crossing and in exceptional cases, there is a figure-of-eight loop.


Union Knot

Very frequent.



Frequent, although not to the same degree as in Pr 1 and Pr 2.






Danske Runeindskrifter,

Gräslund, Anne-Sofie, 2006. ‘Dating the Swedish Viking-Age rune stones on stylistic grounds’. Runes and their Secrets – Studies in runology.

The Scandinavian Runic-text Data Base.

Sveriges runinskrifter.


Examples of Runestones in Pr 3

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