Jonas Lau Markussen

Profile 5

In the same series:


The Runestone Styles


The Styles


The Stones




Pr 5


c. 1100 – 1130




Characterisation of the style

As defined by Anne-Sofie Gräslund



Overall impression

The characteristic, tight check pattern, formed by parallel lines crossing each other at right angles, usually horizontally and vertically on the carved area, lines that are parts of the loops of the rune animal and the snake.



Two types occur, a) one triangular with clear roots in Pr 4, Pr 3 etc., which ends at the back in the typical hook shape, constituting the step down to the neck. and b) one with a rounded skull and stop of the same kind as in Irish metalwork from the beginning of the 12th century.



a) can be thin, straight or almond shaped but is generally lacking. b) round or reverse almond shaped.



a) very low set and strongly bent backwards, often only faintly outlined. b) either leaning backwards or lacking.



a) straight underline, straight, closed mouth with a small lip lappet downwards, nose tip slightly bent upwards. b) often half open (occasionally closed) with a lower lip thickened downwards. Upper lip rolled in downwards.



Normally with two straight toes and a pointed spur, which may continue in a loop-shaped tendril. The hook shape is found at the angle between the long leg with knee and the foot.



Normally replaced by a foot.


Additional snakes

Essential, occur always, without them there would be no Pr 5 pattern.



One rune animal along the edge with over-crossing. Angles or “knees” at the lower part of the carving where the head piece and tail piece meet are frequent, giving symmetry to the composition and creating the typical hook shape that recurs in the form of heads and feet.


Union Knot

Do not occur.



Occur sometimes, usually simple crosses of A-type.






Danske Runeindskrifter,

Gräslund, Anne-Sofie, 2006. ‘Dating the Swedish Viking-Age rune stones on stylistic grounds’. Runes and their Secrets – Studies in runology.

The Scandinavian Runic-text Data Base.

Sveriges runinskrifter.


Examples of Runestones in Pr 5

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