Jonas Lau Markussen

U 331

The carvings of the rock are in the runestone style Pr 3 (c. 1045-1075) pertaining to the early Urnes style.


The inscription on the surface of the rock is c. 1,45 m tall and 0,92 m wide.


Though the inscription is not signed, it is attributed to the runemaster Fot.



Runic inscription

The first part of the runic inscription starts at the neck of the animal to the left.


The second part of the runic inscription starts at the tail end of the animal to the right.




[1] × ᛁᚾᚴᛅ × ᛚᛁᛏ × ᚱᛁᛋᛏᛅ × ᚱᚢᚾᛅᛦ × ᛂᚠᛏᛁᛦ × ᚱᛅᚴᚾᚠᛅᛋᛏ × ᛒᚬᚾᛏᛅ × ᛋᛁᚾ + ᛡᛅᚾ × ᛅᛏ[ᛁ ×] ᛅᛁᚾ × [2] ᛒᚤ × ᚦᛁᚾᛅ × ᛂᚠᛏᛁᛦ × ᛋᛁᚴᚠᛅᛋᛏ × ᚠᛅᚦᚢᚱ × ᛋᛁᚾ × ᚴᚢᚦ × ᛡᛁᛅᛚᛒᛁ × ᛅᚾᛏ ᚦᛅᛁᛦᛅ ×



× inka × lit × rista × runaʀ × eftiʀ × raknfast × bonta × sin + han × at[i ×] ain × × by × þina × eftiʀ × sikfast × faþur × sin × kuþ × hialbi × ant þaiʀa ×


Old Norse

Inga let rista runaR æftiR Ragnfast, bonda sinn. Hann atti æinn by þenna æftiR Sigfast, faður sinn. Guð hialpi and þæiRa.



Inga had the runes carved in memory of Ragnfastr, her husbandman. He alone owned this estate after Sigfastr, his father. May God help their spirits.




Snottsta, Uppland, Sweden

U 331

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