Jonas Lau Markussen

Ringerike style

c. 1000 – 1075



The Ringerike style has many similarities with the preceding Mammen-style, but has a more developed and taut feel.



The Anatomy of Viking Art









  1. Tightly scrolled tendril terminals.
  2. Slim and short tendrils.
  3. Tendrils with a single lobe.
  4. Lobes with alternating sidelobes.
  5. Clusters of centrifugally projected tendrils.
  6. Pellets intersecting ribbons.
  7. Spirals representing hip joints.
  8. Almond-shaped eyes






Curvy outlines with occasional straight or concave dents, often with single or double-contour.






Ribbon-like taut loops, generally only curving in one direction.

A. Pear-shaped loops.

B. Figure-of-eights loops.

C. Pretzel-knots

D. Multiloops.






  • Semi-tight loops and knots with some visible background.
  • Double-stranded ribbons.
  • Breaking of ornament lines into panels (by intersection).







  • Single motifs (B, C, D).
  • Tauter compositions.
  • Axiality and symmetry occur (A, B, D).
  • Additive principles, i.e. clusters of tendrils.
  • Different elements has different value, i.e. stems vs tendrils (B, C, D).





Common motifs


  • Vegetal ornaments.
  • Great beasts (Lion and snake intertwined in battle).
  • Snakes.
  • Birds.




A. Three greater snakes in pear-shaped loops intertwined with three lesser snakes – A type of motif which is seen on weather vanes and brooches found in Scandinavia.


B. Bird intertwined with a snake – A type of motif which is typically seen on vanes and brooches found in Scandinavia.


C. Animal intertwined with a snake – A very popular type of motif seen across many mediums like stones, brooches and weather vanes found across Scandinavia and the British Isles.


D. Vegetal Cross – A type of motif seen on scandinavian rune-stones.











Graham-Campbell, James, 2013. Viking Art.


Fuglesang, Signe Horn, 1980. Some Aspects of the Ringerike Style.


Fuglesang, Signe Horn, 1981. ‘Stylistic Groups in Late Viking and Early Romanesque Art.’ Acta ad Archaeologiam et Artium Historiam Pertinentia (Series altera in 8°) 79–125.


The Anatomy of Viking Art

The Anatomy of Viking Art

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